By: Daniella Jade Lowe
What is Disability?
Over the years, classifying and defining disability has become quite tedious. There are various examples to describe disability.
Disability is seen as a ‘social construct.’ It is the idea that society and its’ institutions have the authority to construct disability around social expectations. In medieval times, disability was constructed around a person’s moral behaviour.
Disability is defined as a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities. According to an article I read from meriahnichols.com, ‘dis’ is another way of doing and being. The term disability is an ability to do or be in another way. The term disabled is an ability to do or be something, in another way-https://www.meriahnichols.com/3-reasons-say-disability-instead-special-needs/.
Even though, I’ve only identified three models of disability, according to research there seems to be loads more.
Models of Disability are tools for defining impairment and for providing a basis upon which government and society can devise strategies for meeting the needs of disabled people.
Medical Model of Disability
The medical model describes disability as a consequence of a health condition, disease or caused by a trauma that can disrupt the functioning of a person in a physiological or cognitive way.
This model is a conceptualization of disability as a condition a person has and focuses on the prevention, treatment or curing of the disabling condition.
Functional Model of Disability
This model is similar to the medical model because it conceptualizes disability as an impairment or deficit. Disability is caused by physical, medical or cognitive deficits. The disability itself limits a person’s functioning or the ability to perform functional activities.
Social Model of Disability
The Social Model of Disability includes people’s views, opinions and attitudes. It has been the prominent approach to disability over the last 30+ years.
It was developed by disabled people based on real life experience of discrimination, inclusion and challenging disabling barriers. It is outward looking and focused on the things in society that can be changed or improved, like, the environment, information, communications and people’s attitudes.
It’s a problem solving approach which gives disabled people greater control over vital, even basic decisions, like, from what time to get out of bed on a morning to employability and education choices.
This approach enables you to better understand how reasonable adjustments can be implemented. It also focuses on the things you can influence or change and promotes valued skills.
In conclusion, the purpose behind the models of disability is to highlight the political struggle of disability. It analyzes the ‘problem of disability.’ It also affects policy making, so that we can make positive change in our society for people with disabilities.
Since laws are already created to discriminate against disabled people by default, we need to make sure that the Social Model of Disability is pushed to ensure equality.
For more information on the various models of disability, check out this website: https://www.disabled-world.com/definitions/disability-models.php.